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Articles on this Page
- 03/31/17--17:00: _Optical Stark effec...
- 10/31/15--17:00: _Genetic predisposit...
- 03/31/16--17:00: _Young Children Trea...
- 05/31/14--17:00: _On the use of tally...
- 04/30/16--17:00: _Interconnection of ...
- 07/31/16--17:00: _Coral reef soundsca...
- 12/31/14--16:00: _Valuing Possibility...
- 01/31/16--16:00: _ON SUN-TO-EARTH PRO...
- 01/31/16--16:00: _Adiabatic and Hamil...
- 01/31/16--16:00: _In situ Proteomic P...
- 03/31/16--17:00: _Seismic sparse-spik...
- 05/31/13--17:00: _Thermal pulse energ...
- 11/30/11--16:00: _Model order reducti...
- 09/30/16--17:00: _A Quantum Version o...
- 07/31/15--17:00: _Shanghai Gone: Domi...
- 02/28/15--16:00: _Track Reconstructio...
- 03/31/15--17:00: _A New Event Builder...
- 07/31/15--17:00: _Engineering New App...
- 08/31/16--17:00: _Time-Dependent Eddy...
- 04/27/17--17:00: _Neutrino physics wi...
- 03/31/17--17:00: Optical Stark effect in 2D semiconductors
- 03/31/16--17:00: Young Children Treat Robots as Informants
- 07/31/16--17:00: Coral reef soundscapes may not be detectable far from the reef
- 05/31/13--17:00: Thermal pulse energy harvesting
- 09/30/16--17:00: A Quantum Version of Schoening's Algorithm Applied to Quantum 2-Sat
- 03/31/15--17:00: A New Event Builder for CMS Run II
- 07/31/15--17:00: Engineering New Approaches to Cancer Vaccines
- 04/27/17--17:00: Neutrino physics with JUNO
Optical Stark effect in 2D semiconductors
McIver, James W.; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Sie, Edbert Jarvis; Fu, Liang; Kong, Jing; Gedik, Nuh
Semiconductors that are atomically thin can exhibit novel optical properties beyond those encountered in the bulk compounds. Monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are leading examples of such semiconductors that possess remarkable optical properties. They obey unique selection rules where light with different circular polarization can be used for selective photoexcitation at two different valleys in the momentum space. These valleys constitute bandgaps that are normally locked in the same energy. Selectively varying their energies is of great interest for applications because it unlocks the potential to control valley degree of freedom, and offers a new promising way to carry information in next-generation valleytronics. In this proceeding paper, we show that the energy gaps at the two valleys can be shifted relative to each other by means of the optical Stark effect in a controllable valley-selective manner. We discuss the physics of the optical Stark effect, and we describe the mechanism that leads to its valleyselectivity in monolayer TMD tungsten disulfide (WS[subscript 2]).
Genetic predisposition to neuroblastoma mediated by a LMO1 super-enhancer polymorphism
Oldridge, Derek A.; Wood, Andrew C.; Weichert-Leahey, Nina; Crimmins, Ian; Sussman, Robyn; Winter, Cynthia; McDaniel, Lee D.; Diamond, Maura; Hart, Lori S.; Zhu, Shizhen; Durbin, Adam D.; Anders, Lars; Tian, Lifeng; Zhang, Shile; Wei, Jun S.; Khan, Javed; Bramlett, Kelli; Rahman, Nazneen; Capasso, Mario; Iolascon, Achille; Gerhard, Daniela S.; Guidry Auvil, Jaime M.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Diskin, Sharon J.; Thomas Look, A.; Maris, John M.; Abraham, Brian Joseph; Young, Richard A
Neuroblastoma is a paediatric malignancy that typically arises in early childhood, and is derived from the developing sympathetic nervous system. Clinical phenotypes range from localized tumours with excellent outcomes to widely metastatic disease in which long-term survival is approximately 40% despite intensive therapy. A previous genome-wide association study identified common polymorphisms at the LMO1 gene locus that are highly associated with neuroblastoma susceptibility and oncogenic addiction to LMO1 in the tumour cells. Here we investigate the causal DNA variant at this locus and the mechanism by which it leads to neuroblastoma tumorigenesis. We first imputed all possible genotypes across the LMO1 locus and then mapped highly associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) to areas of chromatin accessibility, evolutionary conservation and transcription factor binding sites. We show that SNP rs2168101 G>T is the most highly associated variant (combined P = 7.47 × 10[superscript −29], odds ratio 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.60–0.70), and resides in a super-enhancer defined by extensive acetylation of histone H3 lysine 27 within the first intron of LMO1. The ancestral G allele that is associated with tumour formation resides in a conserved GATA transcription factor binding motif. We show that the newly evolved protective TATA allele is associated with decreased total LMO1 expression (P = 0.028) in neuroblastoma primary tumours, and ablates GATA3 binding (P
Young Children Treat Robots as Informants
Harris, Paul L.; DeSteno, David; Dickens, Leah; Breazeal, Cynthia L.; Kory Westlund, Jacqueline Marie; Jeong, Sooyeon
Children ranging from 3 to 5 years were introduced to two anthropomorphic robots that provided them with information about unfamiliar animals. Children treated the robots as interlocutors. They supplied information to the robots and retained what the robots told them. Children also treated the robots as informants from whom they could seek information. Consistent with studies of children's early sensitivity to an interlocutor's non-verbal signals, children were especially attentive and receptive to whichever robot displayed the greater non-verbal contingency. Such selective information seeking is consistent with recent findings showing that although young children learn from others, they are selective with respect to the informants that they question or endorse.
On the use of tally servers in Monte Carlo simulations of light-water reactors
Siegel, Andrew; Romano, Paul Kollath; Forget, Benoit Robert Yves; Smith, Kord S.
An algorithm for decomposing tally data in Monte Carlo simulations using servers has recently been proposed and analyzed. In the present work, we make a number of refinements to a theoretical performance model of the tally server algorithm to better predict the performance of a realistic reactor simulation using Monte Carlo. The impact of subdividing fuel into annular segments on parameters of the performance model is evaluated and shown to result in a predicted overhead of less than 20% for a PWR benchmark on the Mira Blue Gene/Q supercomputer. Additionally, a parameter space study is performed comparing tally server implementations using blocking and non-blocking communication. Non-blocking communication is shown to reduce the communication overhead relative to blocking communication, in some cases resulting in negative overhead.
Interconnection of post-transcriptional regulation: The RNA-binding protein Hfq is a novel target of the Lon protease in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Fernández, Lucía; Breidenstein, Elena B. M.; Taylor, Patrick K.; Bains, Manjeet; Fang, Yuan; Foster, Leonard J.; Hancock, Robert E. W.; de la Fuente Nunez, Cesar
Besides being a major opportunistic human pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa can be found in a wide range of environments. This versatility is linked to complex regulation, which is achieved through the action of transcriptional regulators, and post-transcriptional regulation by intracellular proteases including Lon. Indeed, lon mutants in this species show defects in motility, biofilm formation, pathogenicity and fluoroquinolone resistance. Here, the proteomic approach stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) was used to search for novel proteolytic targets. One of the proteins that accumulated in the lon mutant was the RNA-binding protein Hfq. Further experiments demonstrated the ability of Lon to degrade Hfq in vitro. Also, overexpression of the hfq gene in the wild-type strain led to partial inhibition of swarming, swimming and twitching motilities, indicating that Hfq accumulation could contribute to the phenotypes displayed by Lon mutants. Hfq overexpression also led to the upregulation of the small regulatory RNA PhrS. Analysis of the phenotypes of strains lacking or overexpressing this sRNA indicated that the Lon protease might be indirectly regulating the levels and activity of sRNAs via Hfq. Overall, this study revealed new links in the complex regulatory chain that controls multicellular behaviours in P. aeruginosa.
Coral reef soundscapes may not be detectable far from the reef
Mooney, T. Aran; Kaplan, Maxwell B.
Biological sounds produced on coral reefs may provide settlement cues to marine larvae. Sound fields are composed of pressure and particle motion, which is the back and forth movement of acoustic particles. Particle motion (i.e., not pressure) is the relevant acoustic stimulus for many, if not most, marine animals. However, there have been no field measurements of reef particle motion. To address this deficiency, both pressure and particle motion were recorded at a range of distances from one Hawaiian coral reef at dawn and mid-morning on three separate days. Sound pressure attenuated with distance from the reef at dawn. Similar trends were apparent for particle velocity but with considerable variability. In general, average sound levels were low and perhaps too faint to be used as an orientation cue except very close to the reef. However, individual transient sounds that exceeded the mean values, sometimes by up to an order of magnitude, might be detectable far from the reef, depending on the hearing abilities of the larva. If sound is not being used as a long-range cue, it might still be useful for habitat selection or other biological activities within a reef.
Valuing Possibility: South-South Cooperation and Participatory Budgeting in Maputo, Mozambique
While the novelty or distinctness of South-South Cooperation (SSC) as a development paradigm is contestable, its relevance for urban planning is not. SSC among cities in the 21st century is growing, and with it reference to Brazil’s experiences in urban reform. This is in evidence in the Mozambican capital of Maputo, where a large portfolio of SSC stakeholders – or thick
cooperation – paved the way for the institutionalization of Brazilian-inspired participatory budgeting. Maputo’s experience with participatory budgeting demonstrates the particular value of SSC for urban development. SSC in this case promoted a learning environment by embracing flexibility in implementation, particularly vis a vis time and organization, and by
balancing diverse stakeholders with different contributions to the reform exercise. This helped evade destructive power imbalances that typically corrupt traditional development projects. Instead, SSC helped create a ‘proximate-peer’ learning environment, where knowledge or expertise is co-produced, contextually relevant, and recognized among cooperation partners.
ON SUN-TO-EARTH PROPAGATION OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS: II. SLOW EVENTS AND COMPARISON WITH OTHERS
Liu, Ying D.; Hu, Huidong; Wang, Chi; Luhmann, Janet G.; Yang, Zhongwei; Wang, Rui; Richardson, John D
As a follow-up study on Sun-to-Earth propagation of fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs), we examine the Sun-to-Earth characteristics of slow CMEs combining heliospheric imaging and in situ observations. Three events of particular interest, the 2010 June 16, 2011 March 25, and 2012 September 25 CMEs, are selected for this study. We compare slow CMEs with fast and intermediate-speed events, and obtain key results complementing the attempt of Liu et al. to create a general picture of CME Sun-to-Earth propagation: (1) the Sun-to-Earth propagation of a typical slow CME can be approximately described by two phases, a gradual acceleration out to about 20–30 solar radii, followed by a nearly invariant speed around the average solar wind level; (2) comparison between different types of CMEs indicates that faster CMEs tend to accelerate and decelerate more rapidly and have shorter cessation distances for the acceleration and deceleration; (3) both intermediate-speed and slow CMEs would have speeds comparable to the average solar wind level before reaching 1 au; (4) slow CMEs have a high potential to interact with other solar wind structures in the Sun–Earth space due to their slow motion, providing critical ingredients to enhance space weather; and (5) the slow CMEs studied here lack strong magnetic fields at the Earth but tend to preserve a flux-rope structure with an axis generally perpendicular to the radial direction from the Sun. We also suggest a "best" strategy for the application of a triangulation concept in determining CME Sun-to-Earth kinematics, which helps to clarify confusions about CME geometry assumptions in the triangulation and to improve CME analysis and observations.
Adiabatic and Hamiltonian computing on a 2D lattice with simple two-qubit interactions
Terhal, Barbara M; Lloyd, Seth
We show how to perform universal Hamiltonian and adiabatic computing using a time-independent Hamiltonian on a 2D grid describing a system of hopping particles which string together and interact to perform the computation. In this construction, the movement of one particle is controlled by the presence or absence of other particles, an effective quantum field effect transistor that allows the construction of controlled-NOT and controlled-rotation gates. The construction translates into a model for universal quantum computation with time-independent two-qubit ZZ and XX+YY interactions on an (almost) planar grid. The effective Hamiltonian is arrived at by a single use of first-order perturbation theory avoiding the use of perturbation gadgets. The dynamics and spectral properties of the effective Hamiltonian can be fully determined as it corresponds to a particular realization of a mapping between a quantum circuit and a Hamiltonian called the space–time circuit-to-Hamiltonian construction. Because of the simple interactions required, and because no higher-order perturbation gadgets are employed, our construction is potentially realizable using superconducting or other solid-state qubits.
In situ Proteomic Profiling of Curcumin Targets in HCT116 Colon Cancer Cell Line
Wang, Jigang; Zhang, Jianbin; Zhang, Chong-Jing; Wong, Yin Kwan; Lim, Teck Kwang; Hua, Zi-Chun; Liu, Bin; Shen, Han-Ming; Lin, Qingsong; Tannenbaum, Steven R
To date, the exact targets and mechanism of action of curcumin, a natural product with anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, remain elusive. Here we synthesized a cell permeable curcumin probe (Cur-P) with an alkyne moiety, which can be tagged with biotin for affinity enrichment, or with a fluorescent dye for visualization of the direct-binding protein targets of curcumin in situ. iTRAQ™ quantitative proteomics approach was applied to distinguish the specific binding targets from the non-specific ones. In total, 197 proteins were confidently identified as curcumin binding targets from HCT116 colon cancer cell line. Gene Ontology analysis showed that the targets are broadly distributed and enriched in the nucleus, mitochondria and plasma membrane, and they are involved in various biological functions including metabolic process, regulation, response to stimulus and cellular process. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis™ (IPA) suggested that curcumin may exert its anticancer effects over multiple critical biological pathways including the EIF2, eIF4/p70S6K, mTOR signaling and mitochondrial dysfunction pathways. Functional validations confirmed that curcumin downregulates cellular protein synthesis, and induces autophagy, lysosomal activation and increased ROS production, thus leading to cell death.
Seismic sparse-spike deconvolution via Toeplitz-sparse matrix factorization
Wang, Lingling; Zhao, Qian; Gao, Jinghuai; Xu, Zongben; Jiang, Xiudi; Fehler, Michael C
We have developed a new sparse-spike deconvolution (SSD) method based on Toeplitz-sparse matrix factorization (TSMF), a bilinear decomposition of a matrix into the product of a Toeplitz matrix and a sparse matrix, to address the problems of lateral continuity, effects of noise, and wavelet estimation error in SSD. Assuming the convolution model, a constant source wavelet, and the sparse reflectivity, a seismic profile can be considered as a matrix that is the product of a Toeplitz wavelet matrix and a sparse reflectivity matrix. Thus, we have developed an algorithm of TSMF to simultaneously deconvolve the seismic matrix into a wavelet matrix and a reflectivity matrix by alternatively solving two inversion subproblems related to the Toeplitz wavelet matrix and sparse reflectivity matrix, respectively. Because the seismic wavelet is usually compact and smooth, the fused Lasso was used to constrain the elements in the Toeplitz wavelet matrix. Moreover, due to the limitations of computer memory, large seismic data sets were divided into blocks, and the average of the source wavelets deconvolved from these blocks via TSMF-based SSD was used as the final estimation of the source wavelet for all blocks to deconvolve the reflectivity; thus, the lateral continuity of the seismic data can be maintained. The advantages of the proposed deconvolution method include using multiple traces to reduce the effect of random noise, tolerance to errors in the initial wavelet estimation, and the ability to preserve the complex structure of the seismic data without using any lateral constraints. Our tests on the synthetic seismic data from the Marmousi2 model and a section of field seismic data demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively derive the wavelet and reflectivity simultaneously from band-limited data with appropriate lateral coherence, even when the seismic data are contaminated by noise and the initial wavelet estimation is inaccurate.
Thermal pulse energy harvesting
McKay, Ian; Wang, Evelyn
This paper presents a new method to enhance thermal energy harvesting with pulsed heat transfer. By creating a phase shift between the hot and cold sides of an energy harvester, periodically pulsed heat flow can allow an available temperature gradient to be concentrated over a heat engine during each thermal pulse, rather than divided between the heat engine and a heat sink. This effect allows the energy harvester to work at maximum power and efficiency despite an otherwise unfavorable heat engine–heat sink thermal resistance ratio. In this paper, the analysis of a generalized energy harvester model and experiments with a mechanical thermal switch demonstrate how the pulse mode can improve the efficiency of a system with equal engine and heat sink thermal resistances by over 80%, although at reduced total power. At a 1:2 engine–sink resistance ratio, the improvement can simultaneously exceed 60% in power and 15% in efficiency. The thermal pulse strategy promises to enhance the efficiency and power density of a variety of systems that convert thermal energy, from waste heat harvesters to the radioisotope power systems on many spacecraft.
Model order reduction of fully parameterized systems by recursive least square optimization
Elfadel, Ibrahim M.; Zhang, Zheng; Daniel, Luca
This paper presents an approach for the model order reduction of fully parameterized linear dynamic systems. In a fully parameterized system, not only the state matrices, but also can the input/output matrices be parameterized. The algorithm presented in this paper is based on neither conventional moment-matching nor balanced-truncation ideas. Instead, it uses “optimal (block) vectors” to construct the projection matrix, such that the system errors in the whole parameter space are minimized. This minimization problem is formulated as a recursive least square (RLS) optimization and then solved at a low cost. Our algorithm is tested by a set of multi-port multi-parameter cases with both intermediate and large parameter variations. The numerical results show that high accuracy is guaranteed, and that very compact models can be obtained for multi-parameter models due to the fact that the ROM size is independent of the number of parameters in our approach.
A Quantum Version of Schoening's Algorithm Applied to Quantum 2-Sat
Kimmel, Shelby; Temme, Kristan; Farhi, Edward H
We study a quantum algorithm that consists of a simple quantum Markov process, and we analyze its behavior on restricted versions of Quantum 2-SAT. We prove that the algorithm solves this decision problem with high probability for n qubits, L clauses, and promise gap c in time O(n[superscript 2]L[superscript 2]c[superscript −2]). If the Hamiltonian is additionally polynomially gapped, our algorithm efficiently produces a state that has high overlap with the satisfying subspace. The Markov process we study is a quantum analogue of Sch¨oning’s probabilistic algorithm for k-SAT.
Shanghai Gone: Domicide and Defiance in a Chinese Megacity. By QinShao. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2013. xviii, 307 pp. $79.00 (cloth); $29.95 (paper); $28.99 (e-book)
Leighton, Christopher R.
Attention to the physical transformation of urban China across the last decades often fixates on feats of construction: ever more ambitious infrastructure, lofty skyscrapers, and opulent entertainments. Shanghai, the country’s premier megacity, usually sets the pace, and will soon add the eighteenth track to its metro, a 2,000 foot tower crowning its skyline, and a Disneyland triple the size of Hong Kong’s (itself a grand project only a decade old). In Shanghai Gone, Qin Shao redirects us to consider instead the equally impressive process of destruction that precedes and propels the city’s continuing reconfiguration.
Track Reconstruction Progress from the DMTPC Directional Dark Matter Experiment
Druitt, Gabriela; Eggleston, Richard; Lopez, Jeremy; Monroe, Jocelyn; Deaconu, Cosmin Stefan; Fisher, Peter H; Tomita, Hidefumi; Zayas, Evan M.
he Dark Matter Time Projection Chamber (DMTPC) collaboration is developing prototype detectors to measure both the energies and directions of nuclear recoils. The intended application is to exploit the expected directional anisotropy of dark matter velocities at Earth to unambiguously observe dark matter induced recoils. The detector consist of low-pressure CF[subscript 4] TPC's with CCD cameras, PMT's, and charge amplifiers for readout. This talk gives an overview of the experiment and describes recent advances in hardware and analysis.
A New Event Builder for CMS Run II
Darlea, G.-L.; Gomez-Ceballos, Guillelmo; Paus, Christoph M. E.; Sumorok, Konstanty C; Veverka, Jan
The data acquisition system (DAQ) of the CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) assembles events at a rate of 100 kHz, transporting event data at an aggregate throughput of 100GB/s to the high-level trigger (HLT) farm. The DAQ system has been redesigned during the LHC shutdown in 2013/14. The new DAQ architecture is based on state-of-the-art network technologies for the event building. For the data concentration, 10/40 Gbps Ethernet technologies are used together with a reduced TCP/IP protocol implemented in FPGA for a reliable transport between custom electronics and commercial computing hardware. A 56 Gbps Infiniband FDR CLOS network has been chosen for the event builder. This paper discusses the software design, protocols, and optimizations for exploiting the hardware capabilities. We present performance measurements from small-scale prototypes and from the full-scale production system.
Engineering New Approaches to Cancer Vaccines
Irvine, D. J.; Mehta, Naveen; Moynihan, Kelly Dare
Recently, a number of promising approaches have been developed using synthetic chemistry, materials science, and bioengineering-based strategies to address challenges in the design of more effective cancer vaccines. At the stage of initial priming, potency can be improved by maximizing vaccine delivery to lymph nodes. Because lymphatic uptake from peripheral tissues is strongly size dependent, antigens and adjuvants packaged into optimally sized nanoparticles access the lymph node with much greater efficiency than unformulated vaccines. Once primed, T cells must home to the tumor site. Because T cells acquire the necessary surface receptors in the local lymph node draining the tissue of interest, vaccines must be engineered that reach organs, such as the lung and gut, which are common sites of tumor lesions but inaccessible by traditional vaccination routes. Particulate vaccine carriers can improve antigen exposure in these organs, resulting in greater lymphocyte priming. Immunomodulatory agents can also be injected directly into the tumor site to stimulate a systemic response capable of clearing even distal lesions; materials have been designed that entrap or slowly release immunomodulators at the tumor site, reducing systemic exposure and improving therapeutic efficacy. Finally, lessons learned from the design of biomaterial-based scaffolds in regenerative medicine have led to the development of implantable vaccines that recruit and activate antigen-presenting cells to drive antitumor immunity. Overall, these engineering strategies represent an expanding toolkit to create safe and effective cancer vaccines.
available in PMC 2016 August 01
Time-Dependent Eddy-Mean Energy Diagrams and Their Application to the Ocean
Chen, Ru; Thompson, Andrew F.; Flierl, Glenn Richard
Insight into the global ocean energy cycle and its relationship to climate variability can be gained by examining the temporal variability of eddy–mean flow interactions. A time-dependent version of the Lorenz energy diagram is formulated and applied to energetic ocean regions from a global, eddying state estimate. The total energy in each snapshot is partitioned into three components: energy in the mean flow, energy in eddies, and energy temporal anomaly residual, whose time mean is zero. These three terms represent, respectively, correlations between mean quantities, correlations between eddy quantities, and eddy-mean correlations. Eddy–mean flow interactions involve energy exchange among these three components. The temporal coherence about energy exchange during eddy–mean flow interactions is assessed. In the Kuroshio and Gulf Stream Extension regions, a suppression relation is manifested by a reduction in the baroclinic energy pathway to the eddy kinetic energy (EKE) reservoir following a strengthening of the barotropic energy pathway to EKE; the baroclinic pathway strengthens when the barotropic pathway weakens. In the subtropical gyre and Southern Ocean, a delay in energy transfer between different reservoirs occurs during baroclinic instability. The delay mechanism is identified using a quasigeostrophic, two-layer model; part of the potential energy in large-scale eddies, gained from the mean flow, cascades to smaller scales through eddy stirring before converting to EKE. The delay time is related to this forward cascade and scales linearly with the eddy turnover time. The relation between temporal variations in wind power input and eddy–mean flow interactions is also assessed.
Neutrino physics with JUNO
Conrad, Janet Marie
The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO), a 20 kton multi-purpose underground liquid scintillator detector, was proposed with the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy (MH) as a primary physics goal. The excellent energy resolution and the large fiducial volume anticipated for the JUNO detector offer exciting opportunities for addressing many important topics in neutrino and astro-particle physics. In this document, we present the physics motivations and the anticipated performance of the JUNO detector for various proposed measurements. Following an introduction summarizing the current status and open issues in neutrino physics, we discuss how the detection of antineutrinos generated by a cluster of nuclear power plants allows the determination of the neutrino MH at a 3–4σ significance with six years of running of JUNO. The measurement of antineutrino spectrum with excellent energy resolution will also lead to the precise determination of the neutrino oscillation parameters sin² θ₁₂, Δm₂₁² and |Δm[subscript ee]²| to an accuracy of better than 1%, which will play a crucial role in the future unitarity test of the MNSP matrix. The JUNO detector is capable of observing not only antineutrinos from the power plants, but also neutrinos/antineutrinos from terrestrial and extra-terrestrial sources, including supernova burst neutrinos, diffuse supernova neutrino background, geoneutrinos, atmospheric neutrinos, and solar neutrinos. As a result of JUNO's large size, excellent energy resolution, and vertex reconstruction capability, interesting new data on these topics can be collected. For example, a neutrino burst from a typical core-collapse supernova at a distance of 10 kpc would lead to ~5000 inverse-beta-decay events and ~2000 all-flavor neutrino–proton ES events in JUNO, which are of crucial importance for understanding the mechanism of supernova explosion and for exploring novel phenomena such as collective neutrino oscillations. Detection of neutrinos from all past core-collapse supernova explosions in the visible universe with JUNO would further provide valuable information on the cosmic star-formation rate and the average core-collapse neutrino energy spectrum. Antineutrinos originating from the radioactive decay of uranium and thorium in the Earth can be detected in JUNO with a rate of ~400 events per year, significantly improving the statistics of existing geoneutrino event samples. Atmospheric neutrino events collected in JUNO can provide independent inputs for determining the MH and the octant of the θ₂₃ mixing angle. Detection of the 7Be and 8B solar neutrino events at JUNO would shed new light on the solar metallicity problem and examine the transition region between the vacuum and matter dominated neutrino oscillations. Regarding light sterile neutrino topics, sterile neutrinos with 10⁻⁵eV²